Category Archives: gut flora

The Broken Brain Docuseries is now re-running

Due to popular demand the producers of this terrific series are making it available again  on line this weekend. If you have not taken advantage of this information you can do it here:

Replay (YouTube) | Broken Brain

Enjoy

Bob Hansen MD

The Broken Brain on-line “docuseries” is running now.

I would encourage everyone to watch this series of daily interviews and discussions on lifestyle and brain health. This was organized and produced by Mark Hyman MD, director of the Functional Medicine Clinic at Cleveland Clinic, well known author, speaker and physician, Discussions cover many topics including environmental toxins (such as heavy metals and Roundup), nutrition, exercise, sleep, stress reduction, gut bacteria, and more with specific reference to the effects on your brain and risk for dreaded conditions such as Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, etc. These conditions can be prevented and when present, they can be treated with interventions not usually employed by modern medicine, unless you are fortunate enough to be working with a Functional Medicine practitioner.

You can sign up to receive a daily email with a link to the on-line video. Each video in the series is available for 24 hours starting at 3 PM PST, 6 PM EST.

Here is the link to get started with the third episode in this series.

Episode 3: Dementia and Alzheimer’s [LIVE] | Broken Brain

To Your Health,

Bob Hansen MD

Functional Medicine: Getting to the Root Causes of Illness, A cure for Alzheimer’s

Today I watched a great TED talk by Dr. Rangan Chaterjee discussing his own journey in the discovery and implementation of a functional medicine approach to caring for his patients. The concept of using basic science and clinical science to diagnose and treat the root causes of illness, rather than treating symptoms, has been around for more than two decades.  This approach has recently started to attract more attention, especially within the community of younger physicians who have become more dissatisfied with the frustrations of traditional allopathic medicine.

Here is the talk. Dr. Chatterjee covers lots of ground in a passionate and informative talk.

Enjoy this talk. If you would like to learn about how a functional medicine approach can CURE ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE then watch this video of Dr. Bredesen who gave this lecture at a meeting of the American College of Nutrition.

Doctor Bredesen, an acclaimed neuroscientist, researcher, and more recently a brilliant clinician, has been criticized by the academic research community for implementing a clinical research protocol that addresses more than one variable at a time! Unfortunately, medical science has been handcuffed by the drug-model of clinical research wherein only one variable (drug vs. placebo for example) is studied. But if an illness has many potential contributing root causes, changing only one variable is doomed to failure, as Dr. Bredesen explains in this lecture.

Sleep well, eat clean, get outdoors every morning to help keep your circadian rhythm and biological clock in order.

Bob Hansen MD

Roundup and GMOs, are dangerous to your health and threaten the future of family farms in America

There is a brief discussion of Roundup (Glyphosate) on Medscape.

Our Toxic World; Is Roundup Slowly Killing Us?

The discussion covers several important issues. To Pique your interest in reading further here are a few salient quotes.

Glyphosate is the most used herbicide in the world, the pride and joy (as well as a great cash cow) of mega-giant chemical manufacturer Monsanto. Although ubiquitous as Roundup® and generally presented for many decades as safe for humans and animals, in 2015 The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) of the World Health Organization labeled glyphosate as “probably carcinogenic to humans.”[3]

The European Union (EU) is trying to determine whether Monsanto should have its license to sell Roundup renewed this year. With that renewal in mind, in the spring of 2016, 48 members of the EU Parliament, representing 13 nations, volunteered to have their urine tested for glyphosate. All were found positive by a German lab.[4] In May 2016, a University of California, San Francisco, lab working for The Detox Project, funded by concerned individuals, reported positive urine tests for glyphosate in 93% of 131 urine samples from across the United States.[5]

Is this widespread presence of glyphosate in humans incidental and harmless or are we all in danger of being poisoned by this Monsanto product? That is a very good question.

Remember the gut microbiome? We are learning a great deal about how it influences so much of human health. There is a project called Qmulus, at the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and funded in part by Quanta Computers of Taiwan. Under its auspices, authors Anthony Samsel and Stephanie Seneff, in a 40-plus-page review[6] with 286 references, paint a very troubling picture of glyphosate’s inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes. For example, one role of this enzyme is to detoxify xenobiotics. The authors propose that the consequences of this inhibition, when coupled with other synergistic disruptions, may insidiously induce many diseases associated with a Western diet, including diabetes, obesity, cancer, autism, Alzheimer’s, and others.

A 2015 paper[7] by the same authors takes these and new findings and deductions even further to manganese deficiency in cows fed genetically modified Roundup Ready feed. This update is 55 pages long with 328 supporting references. Both are in open access; peruse them if you choose. [Editor’s note: Links to the full text of these papers are included with the references.]

If you want to learn more about Roundup, GMOs, and the worsening global threat to our food safety (no exaggeration) you can learn more by visiting www.CenterForFoodSafety.org.

I learned about this organization while watching the film The Future of Food. Although this hit the screens in 2004 it is still worth watching. If you think ROUNDUP is safe or that GMO foods are OK, think again. At least give this movie and website a look before you settle back into contentment with Monsanto and all the other bad actors in the food-seed-pesticide industry making decisions that WILL destroy the ability of farmers in the US and possibly world-wide to use their own seeds.

Monsanto has genetically engineered and patented a suicide gene and placed it into all of it’s seeds (cotton, soy, corn) so that farmers must buy seeds EVERY YEAR. This seed produces crops whose seeds are sterile. If this seed is carried by wind, animals, or other common mechanisms, from Monsanto’s’ crops to non-GMO fields, the gene will hybridize with natural seed crops and after several generations render a majority of crops infertile.

Monsanto produces not just pesticides but pesticide resistant seeds that produce sterile crops. Monsanto is playing monopoly and quickly eliminating independent seed producers and destroying family farms that have every year used their own seeds which have been bred to thrive in the local environment of the family farm.

Other issues abound. Roundup resistant crops, eaten by American consumers, have high levels of ROUNDUP and other pesticides that have been demonstrated to cause tumors in > 50% of animals within 1 year. Monsanto only tested ROUNDUP for 3 months in animal studies and declared it safe. The USDA did not test it. The FDA did not test it. Government scientists and university scientists who expressed concerns were silenced by the economic power of this massive multi-national corporation.

When independent scientists published their alarming results (carcinogenesis), Monsanto used it’s financial resources to shut those scientists down. You can learn about this by watching The Future of Food or visiting www.CenterForFoodSafety.org.

Like big Pharma executives cycling between the pharmaceutical industry and the FDA, Monsanto executives and lawyers cycle in and out of the FDA and USDA. We have allowed the fox to guard the chicken pen and the stakes are high. Family farms have been put out of business by Monsanto’s unethical and predatory behavior, eliminating generations of private seed banks and wreaking havoc for family farms across America. Don’t believe it? Watch the movie. Many farmers have gone bankrupt fighting legal battles with Monsanto because the wind has blown Monsanto’s patented seeds onto their private lands and Monsanto successfully sued them for patent infringement. This predatory behavior has been going on below the radar for many years and it started when the Supreme Court ruled that Monsanto can patent seeds.

In fact, Monsanto has gone into the US national seed banks, collected samples of thousands of different seeds, and patented them! This outrageous and ridiculous scenario has allowed a private company to patent thousands of heritage crop seeds.

If this sounds incredible, you are right, but it is true.

In the meantime, support mandatory GMO labeling and support food retailers who have promised to carry only NON-GMO foods.

To your health.

BOB Hansen MD.

Chronic Pain Reduced by the Paleo Lifestyle

I spend 50% of my clinical time treating chronic pain patients. A paleolithic diet which consists of pastured grass-fed meat, free range poultry and eggs, fresh seafood, fresh vegetables, fruits and nuts decreases inflammation by eliminating major sources of dietary induced inflammation.

Yesterday I saw a patient one month after he started a paleolithic lifestyle (paleo diet, 8 hours of sleep per night- cycling with the sun, regular exercise including a prescribed spine rehab program).

Within 30 days his pain  has decreased by more than 50%, He feels  more energetic. He stated “I have started to dream again and get a full night’s sleep”. He has lost 12 pounds in one month and his blood pressure is down. He is ready to return to work after not working for eight months (with some activity restrictions). He is not taking any opiate pain medication.

His MRI scan and X-rays of the spine will not demonstrate any improvement. He still has degenerative disc disease, one or more tears in a disc annulus (outer wall of the disc) and arthritis in the facet joints of his neck (cervical spine) and lower back (lumbar spine). But the lifestyle elements that have contributed to his chronic inflammation have been significantly reduced in just 30 days and he has benefited “tremendously” in his own words.

There are many mechanisms involved with chronic inflammation. Most patients with chronic pain have an inflammatory component. Many patients with chronic pain are overweight or obese. Excess visceral adiposity (fat around the internal organs) creates a state of chronic inflammation by constantly producing inflammatory chemicals called chemokines and cytokines. These inflammatory mediators are produced by the fat cells and by the white blood cells (macrophages) that reside alongside the fat cells. They contribute to a process called central sensitization where the brain and spinal cord nerves that mediate pain  become sensitized and over-react to sensory input. Interleukin 6 is one of these mediators. Increased levels are associated with fatigue, depression and a state of hyperalgesia where painful stimuli are amplified. Tumor necrosis factor alpha is another important inflammatory mediator produced in excess when excess fat accumulates around the internal organs. Weight loss is essential to decease systemic inflammation, particularly in the setting of chronic pain when someone is overweight or obese.

Pro-inflammatory foods can also increase inflammation by altering intestinal flora and increasing intestinal permeability. These mechanisms have been discussed in previous posts and in the manifesto page of this website.

Few patients follow my dietary and lifestyle advice. Most seem to prefer taking pills, getting injections and other interventional pain procedures. In other words, they prefer to “be-fixed” rather than  take lifestyle initiatives that are likely to not only decrease their pain but also improve their general health. As an interventional pain practitioner I encourage patients to take full advantage of the pharmacology and interventional procedures that are likely to help. But without significant changes in bad dietary habits, poor sleep hygiene and without adopting a rehabilitation exercise program the pills and injections/procedures are much less effective and the prognosis is poor.

Stress reduction is also essential for health in general and for pain reduction in particular. Yet despite repeated recommendations to utilize an inexpensive stress reduction workbook, few patients ever bother to take this important step to reduce pain, anxiety and suffering.

Our culture is one in which patients expect to “be fixed” rather than to be led down a path which leads to healing and functional improvement by actively participating in their own rehabilitation and healing. Our culture is also one in which  major organizations provide bad dietary advice, particularly with respect to encouraging increased consumption of grains and legumes which have pro-inflammatory components and anti-nutrients. We evolved over a few million years without consuming grains, legumes, refined vegetable olis or dairy. Our evolutionary biology and physiology thrive when these foods, particularly processed foods are eliminated from the diet and we consume only those whole natural foods we have evolved to eat.

Modern medicine provides many remarkable drugs, surgeries and procedures that can be life saving and life altering. But application of this technology without addressing the fundamental determinants of health (proper nutrition, restorative sleep, judicious exercise, stress reduction, and restoration of circadian rhythm) yields much less benefit. Ultimately, unless we remove from our lives the destructive components of modern society and culture we cannot heal and instead continue to suffer from chronic degenerative diseases that cause pain, loss of intellect and loss of mobility.

No references tonight, just comments and reflection. References have been provided in previous posts.

Peace, health, and happiness.

Dr. Bob

The bacteria in your gut are essential to your health Part II, obesity, metabolic syndrome and dysbiosis

I have discussed the evidence linking the mix of bacteria in your gut (gut flora) to health and disease in Part I. The Bacteria in your Gut are essential to your health Part I | Practical Evolutionary Health

Today I will discuss the evidence related specifically to  obesity and metabolic syndrome (the constellation of obesity, insulin resistance, high blood pressure, and abnormal blood lipids). My discussion will follow closely the evidence and theory presented in research and review papers authored by Dr. Cani and colleagues. The first one is titled:

Gut microbiota controls adipose tissue expansion, gut barrier and glucose metabolism: novel insights into molecular targets and interventions using prebiotics.”

You can find the full text of this article here .

I have had the pleasure of corresponding with Dr. Cani by e-mail regarding her many publications investigating the relationship between gut flora, obesity, and metabolic syndrome.

“Recently, we and others have identified several mechanisms linking the gut microbiota with the development of obesity and associated disorders (e.g. insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, hepatic steatosis).”

Explanation: The gut microbiota are the bacteria, viruses and other “bugs” that reside in our intestines. Insulin resistance can occur in various parts of the body, wherever insulin has an effect including fat cells, liver, muscle, brain. When higher amounts of insulin are required to achieve an effect this is called insulin resistance. In Type 2 diabetes, the pancreas is still able to make insulin but insulin is less effective in controlling blood sugar. In Type I diabetes the pancreas no longer produces insulin. Hepatic Steatosis means fatty liver disease. The liver accumulates fat and this can lead to cirrhosis, liver failure and death. Alcohol consumption can cause this but when alcohol is not involved this is called Non-Alcoholic-Fatty-Liver Disease (NAFLD). Our nation presently has an epidemic of not just obesity but also NAFLD. Evidence points to  excess carbohydrate consumption and excess consumption of vegetable oils (linoleic acid)  as contributing factors in NAFLD.  Carbohydrate restriction and consumption of saturated fat, particularly medium chain fats (as found in coconut) can protect against NAFLD. But the gut flora also play a role. The mechanisms involved are many.

“Among these, we described the concept of metabolic endotoxaemia (increase in plasma lipopolysaccharide levels) as one of the triggering factors leading to the development of metabolic inflammation and insulin resistance.”

Endotoxemia occurs when a toxin from certain kinds of bacteria circulates in the blood. This endotoxin enters our blood through our intestines under conditions in which the protective barrier of the intestines is compromised. The compromise of the intestinal barrier is variously referred to as ” leaky gut” or “increased intestinal permeability”. Wheat gluten-gliadin  causes increased intestinal permeability (especially in celiac disease) as can other plant lectins. In this discussion, the gut bacteria also contribute in the setting of “dysbiosis” (the beneficial effects of helpful bacteria are overwhelmed by the harm-causing bacteria when a healthy balance is not present)

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) comes from the outer wall membrane of certain bacteria. Blood plasma is the liquid part of blood in which the blood cells circulate. So an “increase in plasma lipopolysaccharide” simply means that there is more LPS circulating in the blood. That is a bad thing. Depending on how much is circulating this alone can cause organ failure and death and is a major part of the physiologic changes involved in septic shock. But lower levels of LPS circulating in the blood can cause chronic low grade inflammation and insulin resistance. Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation and increased LPS circulating in the blood and being distributed to various organs where it wreaks havoc.

“Growing evidence suggests that gut microbes contribute to the onset of low-grade inflammation characterizing these metabolic disorders via mechanisms associated with gut barrier dysfunctions.”

“We have demonstrated that enteroendocrine cells (producing glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-2) and the endocannabinoid system control gut permeability and metabolic endotoxaemia.”

That is a mouth-full. Over thirty different kinds of hormone producing cells have been found in the human intestine. These cells are called enteroendocrine cells. The hormones produced by these cells have many effects. You can find a great review of these cells and their effects here .

In Dr. Cani’s review article she describes how some of these hormones produced in the gut can increase intestinal permeability and allow more of the toxic, inflammation producing LPS to enter the bloodstream. But these hormonal effects are just part of the picture. Another part relates to endocannabinoids.

The  Endocannabinoid system in humans is complex and relates to hunger, satiety, energy metabolism, and yes gut permeability. Endocannabinoid refers to our internal (endo) production of cannabis like substances. Pot smoking people get the munchies because of the appetite stimulating effects of marijuana. But endocannabinoids have many other physiologic effects including the modulation of pain, mood, immune function and memory.

Dr. Cani describes in great detail the evidence supporting the roles that the gut flora play in influencing intestinal permeability mediated through the effects of various hormones and endocannabinoids. In animal and human studies changing the gut flora produces changes in these hormones and endocannabinoids which in turn can increase or decrease intestinal permeability and increase or decrease circulating LPS.

It turns out that specific  Prebiotics can produce growth of beneficial gut bacteria and through the series of steps outlined above, reduce inflammation in the body, improve blood sugar, improve insulin sensitivity, and decrease fat,

Oh, and similar to the endocannabinoid system, there is an “apelinergic system” in our bodies that also plays a role. If you want to read more about these systems you should read the original article and the other links below to related articles.

I have discussed in the past that fecal transplants have been used to treat the specific dysbiosis that occurs with C Difficile colitis. But fecal transplants have many potential beneficial uses.

The Fatlose 2 trial is presently studying the effects of fecal transplants on insulin resistance and related problems in human volunteers. I will let you know when the results are published, Studies conducted in rodents have demonstrated significant weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity when obese rodents receive fecal transplants from lean rodents.

In summary: dysbiosis represents an unhealthy mix of bacteria in the gut

  • dysbiosis causes increased intestinal permeability (leaky gut)
  • increased intestinal permeability leads to increased circulating LPS, which is bad
  • elevated levels of circulating LPS create a chronic state of inflammation which contributes to obesity and metabolic syndrome
  • the mechanisms that link dysbiosis to intestinal permeability include hormonal disruption (enteroendocrine cells) and the endocannabinoid system. Other mechanisms are also likely in play.
  • prebiotics and probiotics can mitigate dysbiosis, reduce intestinal permeability, reduce inflammation, and offer potential therapy for obesity and metabolic syndrome
  • fecal transplantation offers a potential for treatment for obesity and metabolic syndrome, research is underway

Our ancestors lived and evolved for a few million years prior to the relatively brief ten thousand years of agriculture and one hundred years of industrialization. The overuse of antibiotics in medicine and animal husbandry have contributed to dysbiosis. Other factors include stress, disruption of circadian rhythm, sleep deprivation. Cesarean delivery and avoidance of breast feeding conspire to dysbiosis. Processed foods feed unfriendly bacteria in our guts at the expense of beneficial bugs. Agricultural foods have introduced dietary lectins which also increase intestinal permeability and thereby contribute to chronic inflammation. The further we stray from our evolutionary niche, the more problems we experience.

This discussion just touches the surface of gut flora, dysbiosis, health and disease. We have yet to explore the gut-brain axis. Our gut and microflora communicate with and effect the function of our brain and other organs as well.

We will continue to explore health and disease from an evolutionary perspective.

Below are links to articles related to our discussion.

Peace, health and happiness.

BOB

Gut microbiota controls adipose tissue expans… [Benef Microbes. 2014] – PubMed – NCBI

Glucose metabolism: Focus on gut microbiota, … [Diabetes Metab. 2014] – PubMed – NCBI

Probiotics, prebiotics, and the host microb… [Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2013] – PubMed – NCBI

Crosstalk between the gut microbiota a… [Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012] – PubMed – NCBI

Gut microbiota and its possible relationship … [Mayo Clin Proc. 2008] – PubMed – NCBI

Enteroendocrine Cells: Neglected Players in Gastrointestinal Disorders?