Today’s update from the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security:
An editorial published in Nature discusses the need to shift focus away from surface decontamination as a mechanism to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission risk. Multiple studies have found that transmission of SARS-CoV-2 via contaminated surfaces, or fomites, is relatively rare compared to respiratory transmission via droplets or aerosols. Despite the evidence supporting respiratory exposure as the overwhelming driver of community transmission, numerous public health entities, including the WHO and US CDC, continue to emphasize the importance of surface decontamination, which can cause confusion among the public regarding transmission risk and appropriate protective measures. Notably, surface decontamination efforts, while highly visible and easy to recognize, are costly and likely not effective means of reducing transmission risk. The editorial calls for increased focus on improving ventilation and air filtration capacity to reduce respiratory exposure. Additionally, proper physical distancing and face mask use remain key tools in mitigating exposure and transmission risk for individuals.
The key to reducing the risk of symptomatic infection, especially moderate to severe illness and death appears to be vaccination.
While vaccination clearly reduces the risk of severe illness and death, we do not yet know whether or how much vaccination reduces the risk of carrying and transmitting the virus. So even after vaccination, an asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic person can still transmit the disease to others.
50-60% of viral transmission appears to be from asymptomatic individuals. So wearing a mask, social distancing, and avoiding unventilated crowded indoor spaces remains extremely important.
DOUBLE MASKING IS MORE EFFECTIVE THAN SINGLE MASKS.
A TRIPLE LAYER MASK OF TIGHTLY WOVEN FABRIC IS MORE EFFECTIVE THAN a SINGLE OR DOUBLE LAYER MASK.
N95 MASKS ARE MOST EFFECTIVE BUT THEY MUST FIT THE FACE WITH A TIGHT, SNUG FIT.
TO IMRPOVE THE BARRIER FUNCTION OF MASKS WEAR A SNUG FABRIC MASK OVER A SURGICAL MASK OR OVER AN N-95. THIS WILL PROTECT BOTH THE WEARER AND THOSE AROUND THE WEARER. The fabric mask over a surgical or N-95 mask provides two mechanisms of protection. It adds an extra layer and it provides for a tighter fit of the underlying mask.
Doctors and nurses in hospitals and clinics often wear a surgical mask over an N-95.
Face shields do not protect you or those around you from infection. Face shields and goggles (more so) likely decrease the risk of infection transmitted from aerosols that hit your eyes but do nothing for the most important mechanism of spread, breathing aerosols or droplets into your nose. Aerosols spread around a face shield into your nose.
Think about smelling the pleasant odors of food cooking in a kitchen. Face shields will not block those aerosolized food vapors from entering your nose, but tightly fitting masks will do it to some degree.
SARS-CoV-2 virus is at least 10 times more lethal than an “average” case of influenza. Newer circulating variants have mutations that have probably increased the mortality rate.
SARS-CoV-2 is at least 10 times more easily transmitted compared to most respiratory viruses. Newer circulating variants have definitely increased ease of transmission by at least 30%. As a result, herd immunity will likely require 85-90% vaccination of a given population.
10 times 10 equals 100 TIMES MORE SERIOUS.
In addition, compared to other respiratory viruses, this virus will more frequently cause long lasting or even permanent damage and disability involving one or more organs (heart, lung, kidney, brain). Long-COVID can occur following minimally symptomatic illness and even after asymptomatic illness.
This virus is unique in that TRANSMISSION OCCURS MOST FREQUENTLY FROM ASSYMPTOMATIC INDIVIDUALS.
This occurs for two reasons.
1. Unlike most other respiratory viruses, there is a long time from the onset of when a person becomes infectious to when they become symptomatic. (an average of 5 days)
2. Some individuals never develop symptoms but are still highly infectious for up to 2 weeks.
Restaurants, bars, churches, meeting rooms, cafeterias, parties in closed spaces are situations for SUPERSPREADER EVENTS. An this includes SUPER BOWL PARTIES.
Studies in hospitals show that transmission to health care workers occurs most frequently in the cafeteria and in meeting rooms, not at the bedside where providers are wearing PPE.
In the context of the COVID 19 pandemic I will close with the usual summary.
- Avoid alcohol consumption (alcohol wreaks havoc with your immunity)
- Get plenty of sleep (without adequate sleep your immune system does not work well )
- Follow good sleep habits
- Exercise, especially out of doors in a green space, supports the immune system
- Get some sunshine and make sure you have adequate Vitamin D levels. Supplement with Vitamin D3 to get your levels above 30 ng/ml. (read this Open Letter)
- Eat an anti-inflammatory diet rich in micronutrients.
- Practice stress reduction like meditation and yoga which improves the immune system
- Eliminate sugar-added foods and beverages from your diet. These increase inflammation, cause metabolic dysfunction, and suppress immunity.
- Eliminate refined-inflammatory “vegetable oils” from your diet, instead eat healthy fat.
- Clean up your home environment and minimize your family’s exposure to environmental toxins by following recommendations at EWG.org with regards to household products, personal care products, and organic foods. (https://www.ewg.org/)
THIS WEBSITE PROVIDES INFORMATION FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY. CONSULT YOUR HEALTH CARE PROVIDER FOR MEDICAL ADVICE.
Eat clean, drink filtered water, love, laugh, exercise outdoors in a greenspace, get some morning sunlight, block the blue light before bed, engage in meaningful work, find a sense of purpose, spend time with those you love, AND sleep well tonight.